Why Angular is not only for single page web apps

AngularJs is often seen as a viable solution for building full scale single page web applications. Although that is a good use case for Angular, in this post we will explore how the framework can also be used to incrementally add functionality to any web page in general, in some cases with little to no Javascript needed (example).

The initial intent of Angular

Before it became an open source framework, Angular was meant as a development tool targeted mostly at web designers. The framework would allow designers to enhance HTML pages and give them the ability to validate and persist forms in a transparent way (see reference here).

The initial idea was to allow designers to use some extra HTML tags or attributes for adding dynamic capabilities to a web page, without having to write any Javascript at all.

Using Angular incrementally in existing apps

Currently Angular is likely to be used as the main MVC framework of a medium to large scale single page web application. But Angular can also be used to incrementally add functionality to existing web applications, in a way very similar to how it was initially intended to be used.

Let’s give one concrete example: form validation.

Example: using Angular for form validation

At 44k minified and compressed, Angular packs a lot of interesting functionality for doing dynamic form validation.

Take for example the following form for user creation, it does the following (interactive example bellow):

  • highlights fields in error dynamically as we type
  • provide inline messages while the user is typing in a field
  • disable the submit button until all the needed data is available and the terms and conditions checkbox is checked

For a working version of this form implementing the above functionality, check the following github repository.

Note that the example above only needs a single line of Javascript code, that is necessary to import the ng-messages module:

angular.module('DemoApp', ['ngMessages']);

Apart from that, the whole functionality is based on built-in Angular directives and ng-messages.

The Angular form directive

When Angular compiles the DOM inside ng-app, it applies to form tags the built-in form directive. In the case of the above form, this means that the initial HTML of the form will look something like this:

<form class="ng-pristine ng-invalid  
ng-invalid-required" name="frm">  

Notice the strange looking ng-pristine and the ng-invalid classes that Angular automatically adds depending on the form state.

How do these built-in state classes work?

These classes are applied to both the form and the individual input fields, and can be used to help style the form. The following states are provided by Angular:

  • ng-pristine: this means the form or input is in it’s initial state: no input fields where touched or edited
  • ng-touched: the control or form was clicked by the user, but not necessarily edited
  • ng-dirty: the input control was edited by the user
  • ng-invalid: the form control was edited but it contains an invalid value
  • ng-valid: the input control was edited by the user and contains a valid value

For example the ng-invalid state can be used to paint a red border around fields in error.

Angular built-in validation directives

The validations of each field can be declared directly in HTML. For example the password field has the following validations:

  • field is mandatory
  • minimum length of 6 characters
  • maximum length of 10 characters

These validations are declared using the required, ng-minlength and

ng-maxlength directives:

<input name="password" ng-model="user.password" type="password"  placeholder="Password" required ng-minlength="6" ng-maxlength="10">

See here the full list of built-in directives that can be applied to a form input. It’s also possible to create our own validation directives.

Enhanced form validation with ng-messages

While the user is entering data, it’s helpful to show a message informing him of the next step in the validation process, for example:

  • first show that a field is required
  • when the user starts typing, show a message indicating the minimum length

This is how the form should look with several of it’s components dirty and invalid:

This functionality can be implemented using the ng-messages directive:

<div class="pure-control-group">
    <input name="password" ng-model="user.password"
        type="password" placeholder="Password"
        required ng-minlength="6" ng-maxlength="10">
    <div class="field-message"  
    ng-if='frm.password.$dirty' ng-cloak>
        <div ng-message="required">Password is required</div>
        <div ng-message="minlength">
            Password must have minimum 6 characters
        <div ng-message="maxlength">
            Password must have maximum 10 characters

Controlling the state of the submit button

The submit button can be made enabled/disabled according to the form validity and the condition checkbox using the ng-disabled directive:

<button type="submit" class="pure-button pure-button-primary" ng-disabled="frm.$invalid || !conditions">Submit</button>


With the use of the Angular built-in directives and some additional modules, it’s possible to add a lot of functionality to an existing web application.

In the concrete case of form validation, this can be done with almost no Javascript at all (see the above example), and at a footprint cost (44k minified and compressed) similar to other alternatives.

But form validation is just an example of how Angular can also be used outside of the context of a single page web application in an incremental way.

Any type of existing app can benefit from it for doing small enhancements, such as to validate a form or implement a particular widget.


A thorough walk-through of Angular form validation can be found on this screencast (pre-ngMessages).

Published at Codingpedia.org with permission of Aleksey Novik – source Why Angular is not only for single page web apps from http://blog.jhades.org/

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Aleksey Novik

Software developer, likes to learn new technologies, hang out on stackoverflow and blog on tips and tricks on Java/Javascript polyglot enterprise development.

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